The challenges of equine surgery *H&H VIP*

Anaesthesia and analgesia (pain control) in horses have advanced considerably over the decades. Undeniably, our ability to provide more effective equine anaesthesia and pain relief has made a big difference to equine health and welfare. It has also allowed increasingly complex and challenging operations to be performed. Colic surgery, for instance, has become almost routine in many major UK equine hospitals, while more intricate orthopaedic operations as well as ear, nose and throat surgeries are now possible.